Toxic Effects of Environmental Heavy Metals on Cardiovascular Pathophysiology and Heart Health Function: Chelation Therapeutics
Loutfy H. Madkour
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Arts, Baljarashi, Al Baha University, Baljarashi 65635, Saudi Arabia.
The mobilization of heavy metals by man through extraction from ores and processing for different applications has led to the release of these elements into the environment. Since heavy metals are non-biodegradable, they accumulate in the environment and subsequently contaminate the food chain. This contamination poses a risk to environmental and human health. Heavy metals are strongly implicated in atherosclerotic heart disease. There is many evidence supporting toxic xenobiotic heavy metals as an emerging cardiovascular risk factor. In this review, we will summarize the evidence for the four toxic xenobiotic heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic that are chelated most effectively by edentate (EDTA) disodium and that have convincing published reports documenting their cardiovascular toxicity ranked priority, as environmental chemicals of concern by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. The metabolic effects of heavy metals and hypothetical mechanisms of metal toxicity are discussed. Standard therapies involving treatment with EDTA and curcumin as chelating agent for heavy metals are given. EDTA normalizes the distribution of most metallic elements in the body. There is a relationship between heavy metals to the blood pressure and cholesterol level as a risk factor of myocardial infraction, coronary or cardiovascular disease. Xenobiotic heavy metals (Pb, As, Hg and Cd deplete glutathione and protein-bound sulfhydryl groups, resulting in the production of reactive oxygen species as superoxide ion, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical (O2.-, H2O2, .OH, OH-), consequence, enhanced lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Curcumin reduces the toxicity induced by xenobiotic heavy metals due to its scavenging and chelating properties. The genetic mechanisms through which heavy metals act to increase cardiovascular disease CVD may act still remains unknown. However, additional research is needed in order to proposethe exact mechanism of CVD induced by heavy metals.
Key words: Heavy metals, Cardiovascular disease, Oxidative stress, EDTA, Curcumin chelation.