Chemoprevention Therapy for Oral Leukoplakia
Alberto Rodriguez-Archilla1*, Maria Palma-Morales2
1Oral Medicine Unit, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Granada, Colegio Maximo, s/n. Campus de Cartuja 18071-Granada, Spain.
2Scholar, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Granada,Colegio Maximo, s/n. Campus de Cartuja 18071-Granada, Spain.
Oral leukoplakia is the most frequent potentially malignant disorder of the oral mucosa. Nevertheless, currently, there is no consensus regarding the best therapeutic option for the oral leukoplakia. This study aims assess the chemopreventive treatments for oral leukoplakia. A search method used for this study is a PubMed database search through February 2018, using the following Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms was performed: “leukoplakia, oral”, “leukoplakia, oral/therapy” and “precancerous conditions”. The selection criteria in this study include the studies with findings on chemopreventive treatments of oral leukoplakia. There were no restrictions regarding language or date of publication. The obtained data were analyzed using statistical software RevMan 5.3 (The Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK). For dichotomous outcomes, the estimates of effects of an intervention were expressed as risk ratio (RR) using Haenszel Mantel (HM) method with 95% confidence intervals. The results of17 studies on chemopreventive treatment for oral leukoplakia were included in this meta-analysis. Among the chemopreventive treatments, the most effective were retinoids (RR: 7.98) followed by carotenoids (RR: 7.17). Neither the treatments with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) nor with herbal extracts showed significant therapeutic efficacy. Due to potentially malignant nature of oral leukoplakia, surgical treatment presently remains the treatment of choice. Chemopreventive therapies have a limited therapeutic efficacy and do not minimize the risk of malignancy of these lesions.
Key words: Drug therapy, Precancerous conditions, Oral leukoplakia.